OxyFile #185

UI  - 93236667
AU  - Friedman LI
AU  - Stromberg RR
TI  - Viral inactivation and reduction in cellular blood products.
RF  - REVIEW ARTICLE: 50 REFS.
AD  - American Red Cross, Holland Laboratory, Rockville, MD.
AB  - Even though the risks associated with the transfusion of blood
      products are lower than ever before, considerable efforts are
      being employed to improve the safety of the blood supply. Based
      upon available data, a six log (99.9999%) reduction in virus
      level from screened and tested blood components should
      significantly reduce or eliminate the risk of post-transfusion
      infection. The objective has been to identify generic methods,
      that is, one that would be applicable to all virus. For red
      cells, physical and chemical approaches have been studied; for
      platelets, the approaches have been limited to chemical. The
      physical methods include depletion of leukocytes by filtration,
      removal of plasma by washing, and viral inactivation by heat.
      Among the chemicals investigated to inactivate or help displace
      virus are ozone, detergents, and hypochlorous acid. Several
      photochemicals have also received intensive investigation:
      merocyanine 540, a benzoporphyrin derivative, aluminum
      phthalocyanine, and methylene blue. For platelets, photochemical
      inactivation methods using merocyanine 540, and two psoralen
      derivatives, 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and aminomethyl trimethyl
      psoralen (AMT), have also been studied. Approaches which include
      washing are not suitable. For the most part, either viral removal
      or inactivation has been insufficient, or red cell or platelet
      damage unacceptable. However, there are a few indications that at
      least inactivation of a specific virus, such as HIV, may be
      possible without major cell damage. These studies are in their
      early stages and significant work remains. If feasibility is
      clearly shown in vitro, it is likely that in vivo primate studies
      to demonstrate safety and efficacy will be required.
PT  - JOURNAL ARTICLE
PT  - REVIEW
PT  - REVIEW, TUTORIAL
LA  - Eng
SO  - Rev Fr Transfus Hemobiol 1993 Jan;36(1):83-91