OxyFile #76

TI:  An Electron Microscopical Examination of Cellular 
     Constituents of Human Whole Blood after In-vitro Exposure to 
     Ozone Gas

DT:  Not Known

AU:  Jon Greenberg  BA, MA, MD

SO:  Kief Clinic, Ludwigshafen, Germany

AB:  A transmission and scanning electron microscopical 
     examination was undertaken of four main cell types in human 
     whole blood after exposure to ozone gas in-vitro.  Cellular 
     morphology of erythrocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophilic and 
     basophilic leukocytes and thrombocytes was analyzed 
     following ozonization of human whole blood with 44, 65, 80, 
     90 and 110 ug/ml oxygen/ozone mixture under normo- and 
     hyperbaric (1 bar) conditions with a high total gas mass.

     Extreme conditions were selected in this study in order to 
     provoke cyto-pathological alterations after exposure to 
     ozone gas to human whole blood.  That is, 5 ml of blood and 
     15 ml of an oxygen/ozone mixture which in a normal auto-
     hemotherapy treatment with 150 ml of blood, would 
     extrapolate to a total mass of 19,800 ug/ml ozone, is 
     greatly beyond physiological therapeutic doses administered.  
     Transmission and scanning electron microscopical 
     morphological alterations of cell membranes, organelles and 
     inclusions are clearly observed from 90 ug/ml under normo- 
     and hyperbaric (1 bar) conditions and onwards.  This 
     contradicts the findings of Wolff (1979).  We therefore 
     conclude and suggest that practitioners do not exceed 80 
     ug/ml concentrations under normo- or hyperbaric pressure.